Resources for Parents
DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES(An Informational Guide to Parents)
Important milestones of child development at the appropriate age.
Gross motor development is about how children move
Fine motor development is about how children manipulate objects and use their hands
Speech and language development is about how children communicate, understand and use language
Social and emotional development is about how children relate with others and develop increasing independence.
AGE : 3-6 MONTHS
- Gross Motor : Head control, Roll over.
- Fine motor : Grasps object, Bring hands / objects to mouth
- Speech sounds : Coos, grunts, babbles. Spontaneously vocalizes vowels & consonants. Notices toys that make sounds, Pays attention to music.
- Emotional : Distress, Enjoys being cuddled
- Social : Moves eyes in direction of sounds, Social smile towards mother, Recognizes his mother, Distinguishes between familiar persons and strangers. Expects feeding
AGE : 6- 9 MONTHS
- Gross Motor : Creeping, Crawling and Sitting with support.
- Fine motor : Releases object, Transfers objects to other hand
- Speech sounds : Babbles tunefully
- Emotional : Specific emotional attachment to mother, Cries when unhappy
- Social : Starts responding to own name. Protests separation from mother, Smiles often while playing with you, Enjoys "peek-a-boo".
AGE : 9 - 12 MONTHS
- Gross Motor : Sits alone, Pulls self to standing and take few uneasy steps.
- Fine motor : Claps hands, Stacks 2 blocks, Puts 3 or more objects in container
- Speech & Language : Make sounds, like "ma," "ba," "na," "da," and "ga" , Say one or two words, Imitates sound, responds to simple commands, Use a few gestures, one after another, to get needs met, like giving, showing, reaching, pointing
- Emotional : Affection, Fear of strangers, Curiosity, Exploration
- Social :Waves bye-bye, Plays pat-a-cake, Understands "no -no" Gives and takes objects. Responds to simple commands, Imitates actions and sounds.
AGE : 1 - 1 ½ YEARS
- Gross Motor : Walks sideways and backwards, Walks downstairs with railing
- Fine motor : Scribbling, Grasps 2 objects in one hand
- Speech & Language : Many intelligible words and jargon. Uses one or two word questions.
- Emotional : Very upset when separated from mother, Fear of Bath
- Social : Obeys limited commands, Repeats a few words, Interested in his/her mirror image.
AGE : 1 ½ - 2 YEARS
- Gross Motor : Walks upstairs, runs well, can undress on own.
- Fine motor : Imitates vertical strokes, Removes shoes, untying shoelaces, can feed him/herself
- Speech & Language : Listens to simple stories, Songs and rhymes. Points to pictures in a book when named. Uses simple phrases. Repeats words overheard in conversation. Shows that he or she knows the names of familiar people or body parts by pointing to or looking at them when they are named.
- Emotional : Temper tantrums (1-3 years), Crying for meeting his need
- Social : Competes with other children for toys, Shows desire to be independent, Begins to show defiant behaviour (18months).
AGE : 2 - 3 YEARS
- Gross Motor : Climbs 10 steps, Walks on all types of surfaces, Throws ball using both hands.
- Fine motor : Strings beads, Imitates horizontal strokes, Buttons dress, Screws a lid
- Speech & Language : Starts to use short sentences, controls and explores world with language, uses "I" "me" "you", Often asks for or directs attention to objects by naming them. Speech is understood by familiar listeners most of the time.
- Emotional : Negativistic (2 ½ yrs), Violent emotions, Anger, Differentiates facial expression of anger, sorrow, and joy, Sense of humor(Play tricks), Fear of separation
- Social : Copies parents actions, Dependent, Clinging, possessive about toys, Enjoys playing with another child. Often wants to say 'No' as they start seeing themselves as separate individuals. Resists parental demands. Appears quite bossy. Inability to make decisions.
AGE : 3 - 4 YEARS
- Motor Ability : Stands on one leg, Jumps up and down, Draws a circle and a cross (4 years)
- Speech & Language : Answers simple, "who?", "What?" "Where?", and "why?" questions. Talks about activities at school or at friend's homes. People outside the family usually understand child's speech. Uses a lot of sentences that have 4 or more words. Tells stories.
- Emotional : Self-sufficient in many routines of home life. Affectionate towards parents. Shows affection for familiar members and friends. Imaginary fears of dark, injury, etc. (3-5 years)
- Social : Likes to share, uses "we", cooperative play with other children. Imitates parents and friends, Fantasizing and pretending play activities becomes interesting.
AGE : 4 - 5 YEARS
- Motor Ability : Mature motor control, skips, broad jumps, dresses himself, copies a square and a triangle.
- Speech & Language : Talks clearly. Uses adult speech sounds. Has mastered basic grammar, relates story. Hears and understands most of what is said at home and in school.
- Emotional : Responsibility and guilt. Feels pride in accomplishment.
- Social : Prefers to play with other children and become competitive.